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PARTIES COMPLAINED AGAINST MUST BE MADE PARTIES

Dictum

It is trite that parties against whom complaints are made in an action must be made parties to such action. – Mohammed JSC. Awoniyi v. AMORC (2000)

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ONLY PARTIES TO A DEED CAN SUE

There can be no doubt about the general position that, under English law, a person who is not a party to a deed cannot sue to set it aside or to have it declared null and void: only parties to the deed can do so. This is because the remedy is basically equitable in origin and, as equity acts in personam, the question of cancellation or setting aside of a deed which has been signed, sealed, and delivered was strictly a matter between the parties to the deed. It was possible, on grounds of fraud or constructive fraud committed upon one of the parties to have the deed set aside or ordered to be delivered up for cancellation by order of court.

– Nnaemeka-Agu, JSC. Adejumo v. Ayantegbe (1989)

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DIRECTING PERSONAL ATTENDANCE OF APPELLANT INFRINGES LIBERTY

The order of the Court directing the personal attendance of the appellants is an interference with their liberty as provided under Section 35 of the Constitution 1999 (as amended) when there is no law or rules of Court expressly authorizing the infringement.

– Chima Centus Nweze, J.S.C. Independent National Electoral Commission & Anor v. Ejike Oguebego & Ors (2017)

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COURT WILL NOT PUNISH PARTY FOR MISTAKE OF COUNSEL

I think it should be regarded as settled by a long line of decided cases that the Courts do not normally punish a litigant for mistakes of his counsel. But in my opinion, the Court will not regard this as a universal talisman, the waiver of which will act as a panacea in all cases, the Courts must be satisfied not only that the allegation of the … of Counsel is true and genuine but also it is availing having regard to the circumstances of the particular case.

– I.M.M. Saulawa JCA. Owhor v. Obodo (2020) – CA/PH/448/2017

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INCOMPETENT PARTY CANNOT FILE APPLICATION

A party who is not competently before the Court is incapable of filing applications. The incompetence of the application fatally affected the ruling of the trial Court appealed against. – SAULAWA, JCA. Eshiet v. Effiong (2018)

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WHO ARE THE PARTIES IN A LEGAL PROCEEDING

In legal proceedings the parties, generally speaking, are the persons whose names appear on the record as plaintiffs or defendants.

– Oputa, JSC. Green v. Green (1987)

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SUCCESSFUL PARTY IS ENTITLED TO COST EXCEPT WHERE SPECIAL REASON IS SHOWN

A successful party is entitled to costs unless there are special reasons why he should be deprived of his entitlement. In making an award of costs, the Court must act judiciously and judicially. That is to say with correct and convincing reasons. See Per RHODES-VIVOUR, JSC in NNPC V. CLIFCO NIG. LTD (2011) LPELR-2022(SC) (P. 23, PARAS. D-A).

— U.M. Abba Aji, JSC. Cappa v NDIC (2021) – SC.147/2006

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