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ISSUES FORMULATED ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO BE ARGUMENTATIVE

Dictum

Issues for determination are formulated’ and not supposed to be argumentative’ as formulated. The parties are expected to coin their issues for determination as precise as possible with professional elegance and brevity but without sacrificing its essential messages. By practice, issues formulated are different from issues argued or arguments on issues. Arguments or analogies on issues formulated are not to be contained in the issues so formulated. Arguments and analogies are to be supplied separately to amplify on the issues so formulated. The Respondents’ Counsel is found inadequate in this regard for formulating convoluted issues for determination at pages 7-8 of the Respondents’ Brief.

— S.D. Bage, JSC. Onyekwuluje v Animashaun (2019) – SC.72/2006

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COURT CANNOT CONSIDER AN ISSUE NOT PLACED BEFORE IT

The settled position of the law is that when an issue is not placed before the court for discourse, the Court has no business whatsoever delving into it and dealing with it. A court of law has no business whatsoever delving into issues that are not properly placed before it for resolution, a Court of law has no business being overgenerous and open-handed, dishing out unsolicited reliefs, a Court of law is neither father Christmas granting unsolicited reliefs, nor Knight errant looking for skirmishes all about the place, a Court of law as an impartial arbiter must confine its self to the reliefs sought and the issues before it submitted for resolution.

– Tijjani Abubakar, JSC. Nwobike v. FRN (2021)

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APPEAL COURT MUST DECIDE ALL RELEVANT ISSUES WITHIN THE RECORD

It is good law that an appellate court must examine and decide on all relevant issues in the appeal. That is what the Court of Appeal did and I cannot fault the court. This court cannot gag the Court of Appeal in the re-evaluation of evidence, as long as the court does that within the precinct or purview of the Record, and that is exactly what the court did; and so, a full stop.

— Niki Tobi JSC. Tijani Dada v Jacob Bankole (2008) – S.C. 40/2003

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COURT OF APPEAL CONSIDERS ISSUE, IN THE CASE IT IS OVERRULED BY THE SUPREME COURT

However, as an intermediate Court and in the event that I am overruled in finding that the issue has been rendered academic having already ruled that latter case filed in 2015 is an abuse, I will proceed to consider the issue of statute bar.

— J.H. Sankey, JCA. Zangye v Tukura (2018) – CA/MK/175/2017

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INTERMEDIATE COURT SHOULD PRONOUNCE ON ALL ISSUES

This approach is in keeping with the advice often given by this Court that where a Court is not the final Court on the subject matter, it should endeavour to proffer an opinion on all the issues submitted to it so that the appellate Court would have the benefit of the Court’s reasoning in the event that it does not agree with the position of the Court on the issue of competence, jurisdiction, locus standi, etc.

— K.M.O. Kekere-Ekun, JSC. MTN v. Corporate (2019) – SC.674/2014

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ISSUE MUST ARISE FROM GROUNDS OF APPEAL

It suffices to state, firstly, that an appellate court can only hear and decide on issues raised on the grounds of appeal filed before it and an issue not covered by any ground of appeal is incompetent and will be struck out. – Iguh, JSC. Oshatoba v. Olujitan (2000)

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SUPREME COURT CANNOT CONSIDER ISSUE WHICH LOWER COURT DID NOT CONSIDER

There is no averment to that effect in appellants’ statement of claim in the Court of trial, and the issue was not even raised on appeal. None of the Justices of the Court of Appeal referred the issue in their judgments. Since we have not the benefit of the opinion of the Court below on the issue, it is inappropriate for this Court to consider it. – See United Marketing Co. v. Kara (1963) 1 WLR. 523; Ahamath v Umma (1931) A.C. 799.

— Karibe-Whyte JSC. Okoye v Dumez & Ors. (1985) – SC.89/1984

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