What is error and misdirection or put in another way what constitute or amount to error and misdirection in law. An error in law is defined as a mistaken judgment incorrect as to the existence or effect of matters of fact or a false misconception or application of law. A mistake of law or fact or irregular application of the law, such as to vitiate the proceedings and warrants the reversal of the judgments appealed against. See the case of NWADIKE V. IBEKWE (1987) 4 NWLR 718 at 744. Misdirection in law is when the judge misconceives the issues whether of fact, law or summarises the evidence inadequately or incorrectly. Misdirection may come to be by positive act of the trial judge or by non direction see the old case of CHIDIAK V. LAGUDA (1964) 1 N.M.L.R 123 at 125. Let me add that where the mistake is substantial to the extent that it affects or the decision appealed against, the appeal would be allowed in that such mistakes would amount to miscarriage of justice. See the case of ONAKOYA V. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERA (2002) 11 NWLR (part. 779) 595, where it was held that it is not in every slip of the lower Court that will result in an appeal being allowed.
— M.N. Oniyangi JCA. Presentation National High School & Ors. v. Ogbebor (CA/B/105/2012, 17 MAY 2018)