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APPEAL: WHERE LEAVE IS REQUIRED BUT NOT OBTAINED, APPEAL IS INCOMPETENT

Dictum

Consequently, in law an appeal which requires the prior leave of Court but was filed without the requisite leave of Court is wholly and completely incompetent. It would have no redeeming feature to be considered on the merit no matter how tempting the zeal to do substantial justice on the merit to the parties may be. See Sections 240; 243 (1), (2) and (4); 254C (5) and (6) 3(2) of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 (as amended). See also Skye Bank v. Iwu (supra).

— B.A. Georgewill, JCA. University of Lagos v. Mbaso (2018) – CA/L/775/2016

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WHAT DOES “APPEAL” MEANS?

The word “appeal” is simply to make a formal request to somebody in authority “for a decision to be changed” Oxford Learners Dictionary. In an Appeal, the lower Court’s decision is submitted to a higher Court “for review and possible reversal” see Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th Ed.

— A.A. Augie, JSC. Usman v The State (2019) – SC.228/2016

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APPEAL AGAINST A NONEXISTENT DECISION

I need only add that an appeal against a phantom or non-existent decision is an abuse of the Court’s process.

– Ejembi Eko, J.S.C. Mekwunye v. Emirates (2018) – SC.488/2014

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THERE IS NO RIGHT OF APPEAL ON AWARD OF COSTS

Generally there is no right of appeal against an award of costs except with leave of the High Court or of this court by virtue of section 241(2)(c) of the 1999 constitution. The exception to this provision of the constitution is where in addition to appeal as to costs, there is appeal on other issues or issue. See Anyaso v. Anyaso (1998) 9 NWLR (Pt 564) page 157. Ayanboye v. Balogun (1990) 5 NWLR (Pt 151) page 410.

— Abdu Aboki JCA. ACB v Ajugwo (2011) – CA/E/66/2006

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APPEAL FROM TRIAL COURT TO SUPREME COURT

It is elementary law that this court has no jurisdiction to consider the issue which was only decided by the trial court. – Musdapher JSC. Gbadamosi v. Dairo (2007)

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AN APPEAL IS A CONTINUATION OF THE ORIGINAL SUIT – NEW ISSUES SHOULD NOT BE RAISED

Generally, an appeal is regarded as a continuation of the original suit rather than the inception of a new action. Because of this, in an appeal, parties are normally confined to their case as pleaded in the Court of first instance. They are not allowed to make a new and different case on appeal. They are not allowed to raise in such appeal new Issues without the express leave of Court or to proffer new evidence without such leave. An appeal, being a judicial examination by a higher Court of the decision of an inferior Court, it follows that such examination should normally and more appropriately be confined to the facts and issues that came before the inferior Court for decision.

– Oputa, JSC. Adegoke v. Adesanya (1989)

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APPEAL TO NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL COURT: APPEAL ON CHAPTER IV IS OF RIGHT

In law when an appeal against the decision of the Court below, the National Industrial Court of Nigeria, borders squarely on allegation of any breach of Chapter IV of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) dealing with the provisions relating to fundamental rights, such an appeal lie as of right and no leave of Court is required. So also is an appeal against the decision of the Court below in criminal matters lie as of right without any need for leave of Court. However, where an appeal against the decision of the Court below in civil matter borders on grounds other than grounds alleging breach of any of the provisions of Chapter IV of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 (as amended), happily the law is now firmly settled that it can only lie with the leave of Court. See Skye Bank v. Iwu (2017) LPELR-42595 (SC).

— B.A. Georgewill, JCA. University of Lagos v. Mbaso (2018) – CA/L/775/2016

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